Exploring the Effect of Technology and Innovation on Rwanda’s Economy

The role technology and innovation have played in Rwanda’s economic growth and development cannot be overemphasized. The government’s investments in ICT infrastructure, agricultural research and development, and healthcare services have created new opportunities for businesses and individuals and have helped to improve the quality of life for many Rwandans. Moving forward, continued investment in the ICT sector will be critical to ensuring that these benefits continue and that Rwanda’s economy continues to grow and diversify.

Rwanda, the landlocked country of central Africa, has experienced significant transformations in its economy within the last few years. These have created jobs, made existing ones easier, increased the efficiency of the education sector, and enhanced practices such as agriculture, leading to better yields in farm produce. Without a doubt, technology has played a significant role in Rwanda’s economy within just a few years of its introduction there. The prospects of ICT in Rwanda are great, and its positive impact on the economy, health, and social life of Rwandans cannot be overemphasized.

The Transformation of Rwanda

The economy of Rwanda has a history of being predominantly based on agriculture, with coffee and tea being its primary exports. But the past few decades have seen the small, landlocked country undergo a significant transformation. Its economy has diversified to include a range of sectors, which include services, manufacturing, and construction. In light of these, it has maintained strong and steady economic growth, which is accompanied by substantial improvements in living standards. The tiny landlocked country has also experienced an average growth rate of 7.2% a year over the decade to 2019, while per capita gross domestic product (GDP) grew at 5%. The COVID-19 pandemic threatened to stall this growth, but in 2021, the country surged forward, and its real GDP grew by 8.2% in 2022 (World Bank, 2022).

The transformation of Rwanda didn’t come about by happenstance; deliberate and conscious efforts were put in place to bring about these changes, and some factors, such as the development of the country’s infrastructure, a focus on export-oriented policies, and a significant investment in technology and innovation, have ensured that these transformations see the light of day in Rwanda. The government of Rwanda has implemented several initiatives to promote technology and innovation, including the establishment of several technology hubs and incubators. One of the most significant areas of growth in the Rwandan economy has been the digital economy. The heavy investment of the government in ICT infrastructure, including the development of fiber-optic networks and the expansion of mobile and internet coverage, has enabled the country to attract remarkable investments in digital startups, e-commerce platforms, and other digital services. The digital economy has helped to steady its economy, increase the country’s GDP, and create new job opportunities.

Another area of transformation in Rwanda’s economy has been the manufacturing sector. The government has implemented several policies to promote the development of the sector, including the establishment of industrial parks and the implementation of export-oriented policies. The manufacturing sector has helped to diversify the country’s exports and reduce its dependence on primary commodities. Innovations in manufacturing technology have also helped to improve efficiency and reduce costs, making it more competitive in the global market.

Overall, Rwanda’s recent transformation has been remarkable, and the country has achieved significant growth and development over the past few decades. There are, however, significant challenges that still need to be addressed, and the government is working to address these challenges, paving the way for further growth and development in the country.

Innovation and Technology in Rwandas Economy

Technology and innovation continue to have a significant influence on Rwanda, and the growth of the ICT sector has had a consequential impact on the country’s GDP and job creation.

One of the impacts of the ICT sector on Rwanda’s economy is its increased contribution to the GDP. The ICT sector has become an increasingly important contributor to Rwanda’s GDP. According to the Rwanda Development Board (2022), the ICT sector contributed 2% to Rwanda’s GDP in 2020. At present, it sits roughly at 3%.

Another impact is increased productivity. The use of ICT in other sectors of the economy has helped to increase productivity and efficiency, leading to higher GDP growth. For example, the use of mobile apps and drones in agriculture has helped farmers improve crop yields and reduce post-harvest losses, leading to higher incomes and GDP growth.

One other important impact of the ICT sector is its role in job creation. The growth of the ICT sector has created new job opportunities in Rwanda. The sector employs thousands of people in the country, with many more indirect jobs created through the sector’s supply chain. The ICT sector currently contributes 3% to the GDP, and the government is making efforts to triple these figures to attain at least 10% within a decade (World Economic Forum, 2022).

The ICT sector has also helped to diversify Rwanda’s exports and reduce its dependency on primary commodities. According to the Rwanda Development Board, the ICT sector is the country’s second-largest export sector, accounting for around 17% of total exports in 2020.

The growth of Rwanda’s ICT sector has had a significant impact on the country’s economy, contributing to higher GDP growth, job creation, improved agriculture, and export earnings. It has also brought about the establishment of some successful ICT companies. One of such successes in the ICT sector in Rwanda is Zipline, a drone delivery company that operates in Rwanda and delivers medical supplies to remote areas of the country. The company has made innovative use of technology to improve healthcare access and has since expanded to other countries in Africa. Another successful ICT company in Rwanda is SafeMotos, a ride-hailing platform that operates in Rwanda and provides safe and reliable motorcycle taxi services. Using a smartphone to connect passengers with trained and certified motorcycle taxi drivers, they promote safety and efficiency in the transportation sector. AC Group provides a range of ICT solutions, including software development, cloud services, and digital marketing. Kasha, an e-commerce platform, provides women’s health and personal care products using a mobile app and a network of agents to deliver these products to women across the country. Mara Group is another company operating in the ICT and manufacturing sectors, whose particular focus is on smartphone production. Producing affordable and high-quality smartphones for local and regional markets.

In essence, these companies represent some of the most successful and innovative ICT companies in Rwanda, and they have played a significant role in the growth of the country’s ICT sector.

The Drivers of Rwanda’s Transformation

Technology and innovation have played a crucial role in driving Rwanda’s recent transformations. The initiatives implemented by the government to promote technology and innovation have had a significant impact on the country’s economy. The most significant impact of technology and innovation is the growth of the digital economy, and this has had a ripple effect on other sectors of the economy. The government’s investment in ICT infrastructure and the expansion of mobile and internet coverage have brought about a surge in digital startups, e-commerce platforms, and other digital services.

In addition to the digital economy, technology and innovation have had a significant impact on other sectors of the economy, including agriculture and healthcare. Innovations such as mobile apps and drones have helped farmers improve crop yields and reduce post-harvest losses, while mobile health clinics and the remote diagnosis and treatment of patients by means of information technology have improved access to healthcare services in rural areas and shown prospects in resource-limited settings (Brown & Rudahinduka, 2016).

Consequently, favorable policies implemented by the government to promote and develop the ICT sector, such as tax incentives for ICT companies and the establishment of technology hubs and incubators, have helped create a supportive environment for growth, thereby driving the country’s transformation. A strong regulatory framework has helped to promote competition and attract investment. The Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Authority (RURA), responsible for regulating the ICT sector and ensuring that companies operate in accordance with established standards, has also contributed greatly.

In addition, Rwanda has a growing entrepreneurial culture, which has led to many young people starting their own businesses in the ICT sector. This has created a vibrant startup ecosystem, with many innovative companies emerging in recent years. Having a skilled, well-educated workforce, with particular emphasis on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education, has also helped to create a pool of talented professionals who are able to work in the ICT sector, thus driving the transformation of the economy. Being a member of the East African Community (EAC), which has helped to promote regional integration and create a larger market for ICT products and services, Rwanda has leveraged this to attract investment and create new opportunities for the ICT sector and other sectors of the economy.

In essence, government investments, favorable policies, a strong regulatory framework, an entrepreneurial culture, a skilled workforce, and regional integration are the drivers of the growth of the ICT sector in Rwanda.

Transformation of Rwandas Traditional Industries with Technology

As the wind of transformation continues to blow across Rwanda, its traditional industries are feeling its positive impact, and the resultant effect is the notable developments and innovations experienced in these industries.

The traditional industries in Rwanda are gradually being transformed in various aspects by the ICT sector. One of the most significant transformations is in the agriculture sector. The agriculture sector, which is the backbone of the country’s economy and employs roughly 70% of its population, is now experiencing improved agricultural productivity, reduced post-harvest losses, and increased access to markets. This is particularly of great benefit to farmers in rural areas, who before now were experiencing low agricultural productivity and post-harvest losses of the little they’ve got due to inaccessibility to markets. The introduction of mobile apps used to provide farmers with up-to-date information on weather patterns, crop diseases, and market prices, as well as drones used to monitor crop growth, spray insecticides, and map farmlands, is of great benefit to the agricultural sector. And this is just the beginning, as there are so many prospects for transforming this sector even more using technology. What is more, e-commerce platforms are being used to connect farmers directly with buyers, therefore reducing the need for middlemen and increasing profits for the farmers. Large-scale buyers also have direct and quick access to fresh farm produce, which enhances their delivery system and improves customers’ satisfaction.

Another traditional industry that is experiencing the transformation brought about by technology is the healthcare sector. Though the country has made significant efforts in recent years to improve its healthcare access, rural and remote areas are still left behind. With the use of technology, however, telemedicine platforms are being used to connect patients with doctors and nurses remotely. The use of mobile clinics has also brought healthcare services to the interior. This has significantly improved access to healthcare for people in remote areas. Furthermore, mobile apps are being used to provide health education and track patient data. Drone delivery systems like Zipline are being used to deliver medical supplies to remote areas quickly and efficiently. Overall, the problem of inaccessibility to healthcare services is gradually being addressed by the use of technology.

The education sector is a priority sector for the Rwandan government. It has the mandate of providing and improving access to quality education for all its citizens. Technology is being used to support this mission, with e-learning platforms being used to provide access to educational resources in remote areas. Mobile apps have also been engaged to provide educational content and make learning easy, fun, and engaging for students. Virtual reality (VR) is also being used to create immersive educational experiences, allowing students to explore complex concepts directly. The use of technology has given access to education to people in remote areas; one step at a time, the government’s mandate is being attended to.

Financial services are very critical for economic development, and people’s access to these services is of utmost importance in driving the economy. Many Rwandans, however, still lack access to traditional banking services. Technology is being used to address this issue and provide financial services to those who did not have access to them before. Mobile money platforms are providing services to those without access to the traditional banking system. These services allow users to send and receive money, pay bills, and access other financial services using just their mobile phones. And these transactions can be carried out anywhere and in the twinkling of an eye.

The manufacturing industry is not left out of this transformation. Previously, manufacturing processes were manual, and workers had to work laboriously to produce something tangible. With the use of technology, automation has made the job simpler, faster, and more efficient. This has significantly improved the quantity and quality of production, efficiently managed the supply chain, created employment for highly skilled workers, and improved the sector generally.

Without a doubt, technology is playing a transformative role in the traditional industries of Rwanda. This has helped improve overall productivity, increase access to services, and drive economic growth.

In conclusion, the role technology and innovation have played in Rwanda’s economic growth and development cannot be overemphasized. The government’s investments in ICT infrastructure, agricultural research and development, and healthcare services have created new opportunities for businesses and individuals and have helped to improve the quality of life for many Rwandans. Moving forward, continued investment in the ICT sector will be critical to ensuring that these benefits continue and that Rwanda’s economy continues to grow and diversify.




Brown, S., & Rudahinduka, K. (2016). Use of mobile devices for medical services in resource-limited settings: Case study in Rwanda. ResearchGate. Retrieved from https://rb.gy/0fyxm

Rwanda Development Board. (2022). ICT Skills Snapshot [PDF]. Retrieved from https://rb.gy/kt3dz

World Economic Forum. (2022). Rwanda is tackling digital development challenges – and succeeding.  Retrieved from https://rb.gy/19qjm

World Bank. (2022). Rwanda Overview. Retrieved from https://rb.gy/g0387

Geographer, environmental enthusiast, and a social scientist. He is concerned with human activities and their impact on the environment. A lover of history, natural sciences and the arts. A graduate of Geography and Environmental Management from the University of Abuja, Nigeria.

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